181126 History Talk 26 Nov: The 2nd Spanish Republic and the Civil War 1930-1939

Date:  26th Nov 2018 10:30

Location: Salón de Actos, Espai la Senieta, Moraira (next to the large free car park)

Subject: The 2nd Spanish Republic and the Civil War 1930-1939

Lecturer: Alan Oliver

The Second Spanish Republic 1930 – 1939
and the Civil War 1936 – 1939

1931 The Second Republic was established after the resignation of the Dictator Miguel Primo de Riviera and the abdication King Alfonso X111.The first elected government was a centre left coalition which attempted to modernise Spain. It became unstable and collapsed.

1933 The second coalition government formed after an election was right wing, ignoring or reversing many of the reforms enacted by the previous government. This provoked riots, disorder, lawlessness and assassinations, as a result of conflict between right and left wing groups. Ultimately a two week uprising in Oviedo was very brutally suppressed by force under Franco, then Chief of Staff of the Spanish Army.
The Falange was formed at this time. This government collapsed after a financial scandal.

1936 A third election established a Popular Front communist-socialist Government. This was the main factor triggering the Army Coup of 16th July 1936. The main supporters of the coup, were most of the effective army, who had fought a colonial war in Spanish Morocco for many years, the Guardia Civil, Carlists, Monarchists, the Catholic Church, the Oligarchy, Industrialists and Aristocracy and were ranged against the Government, liberals, socialists, communists, trade unionists, Trotskyites and anarchists.

The revolt appeared to have failed as it was not successful in the main cities, Madrid, Barcelona and Bilbao. However with the support of German and Italian forces it ultimately prevailed after three years of conflict.

The government only received international support from International Brigades and from the Soviet Union. Soviet support was ultimately withdrawn in 1938 when it appeared the war was lost, and coincided with a change in policy and orientation of Soviet foreign policy.

1st April 1939. Victory for the Nationalists.(the rebels).

Further Reading
Second Republic and the Spanish Civil War
Beevor Anthony (1982) The Spanish Civil War Cassell & Co
Hislop Victoria (2008) The Return Headline
Lee Laurie (1972) As I walked out one summer morning Penguin Books
(1992) A moment of war
Orwell George (1938) Homage to Catalonia
Preston Paul (2008) We saw Spain Die Constable
Samson C.J. (2006) Winter in Madrid Macmillan
Thomas Hugh (1961) The Spanish Civil War Eyre & Spottiswood
Vail Amanda (2014) Hotel Florida